What is Dyslexia?
The student who struggles with reading, writing, and/or spelling often puzzles teachers and parents. The student displays average ability to learn in the absence of print and receives the same classroom instruction that benefits most children; however, the student continues to struggle with some or all of the many facets of reading and spelling. This student may be a student with dyslexia.
As defined in the Texas Education Code Section: 38.003
(1) Dyslexia means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity.
(2) Related disorders include disorders similar to or related to dyslexia such as developmental auditory imperception, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysgraphia, and developmental spelling disability.
The difficulties of a student identified as having dyslexia occur in phonemic awareness and manipulation, single-word decoding, reading fluency, and spelling. Secondary consequences of dyslexia may include difficulties in reading comprehension and/or written expression. These difficulties are unexpected for the student’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities. Additionally, there is often a family history of similar difficulties.
The following are the reading/writing/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:
- Difficulty reading single words in isolation;
- Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense or unfamiliar words;
- Slow, inaccurate, or labored oral reading (lack of reading fluency); and/or
- Difficulty with learning to spell.
The reading/writing/spelling characteristics are the result of:
- Difficulty with the development of phonological awareness, including segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words;
- Difficulty learning the names of letters and their associated sounds;
- Difficulty with phonological memory (holding information about sounds and words in memory); and/or
- Difficulty with rapid naming of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet.
The reading/writing/spelling characteristics of dyslexia lead to:
- Variable degrees of difficulty with word recognition in isolation or in context;
- Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension;
- Variable difficulty with aspects of written composition; and/or
- A limited amount of time spent on reading activities.
* Information for this page is from the AISD Dyslexia Handbook for Parents