• Articulation

     

    Modeling and practice are key components to improving articulation skill. As you talk and read to your child, take a few moments to stress his target sound or process in your own speech. Have him look at you while you clearly enunciate the sound. Clearly say each syllable so he can hear all the sounds that go into each word.

    For younger students, find time to make sound production fun! Have him imitate movements you can make with your tongue and lips. Make funny faces in the mirror while you're brushing your teeth. Parrot each other making silly sounds. Practice controlling articulators can make therapy more efficient.

    In addition, please go through the activities on this page related to your child's current target sound.

    Books for B, P & M

     

     

    B

    The Baby BeeBee Bird
    Diane Redfield Massie
    2-6 years

    Buzzy The Bumble Bee
    Denise Brennan-Nelson
    4-8 years

    Chicka Chicka Boom Boom
    Bill Martin Jr & John Archambault
    3-7 years

    P

    It's Pumpkin Time
    Zoe Hall
    4-8 years

    A Pair of Socks
    Stuart J Murphy
    3-6 years

    Ten Apples Up On Top!
    Dr. Seuss
    2-8 years

    M

    Goodnight Moon
    Margaret Wise Brown
    3-8 years

    Mouse Mess
    Linnea Asplind Riley
    4-8 years

    Two Eyes, A Nose & A Mouth
    Roberta Grobel Intrater
    2-5 years

    B & P 2

     

     

    You’re ready for some words now. The trick is to break words into smaller parts. Try some of the words below, saying each part separately. This will give you time to get your mouth ready for those bs and ps. If you think you're ready, speed up and try to blend the words. Look for more practice words in books and around your house.

    b-oy
    b-eep
    b-eef
    b-it
    b-ake
    b-ed
    b-ad
    b-ird
    b-us
    b-ug
    b-all
    b-at

    r-ib
    s-ub
    t-ub

    b-a-b-y
    ho-bb-y
    ra-bb-it
    ro-b-ot
    ca-b-in

    br-own
    br-eak
    br-ick
    bl-ue
    bl-ink
    bl-oom

    P

    p-ink
    p-ea
    p-ay
    p-utt
    p-ie
    p-ull
    p-ool

    chi-p
    gra-pe
    la-p
    sou-p
    soa-p
    sto-p

    p-u-pp-et
    p-u-pp-y
    ha-pp-y
    zi-pp-er
    a-pp-le

    pr-etty
    pr-oud
    pr-ize
    pl-ease
    pl-ate
    pl-ay

    B & P 3

     

     

    Now it's time to move on to phrases an sentences.

    Some tips...

    1) If your child is reading, start with the written word (pages from books, advertisements, etc). Seeing each sound is a visual reminder of how it should be pronounced

    2) Pick a chunk of time during the day (10-30 minutes) that will be "great speech time" Bring your child's attention to his target sound during this time only and have him repeat himself if he can do it more accurately. Outside of this time, don't correct him. Some kids may clam up if they feel they're being judged all of the time.

    3) Increase the amount of "great speech time" as corrections become less necessary.

     

    M 1

     

     

    Hold your lips closed tight! Breathe a few times. Now turn your voice on when you breathe out!

    Keep going - mmmmmm, mmmmmmm, mmmmmmmmm

    M 2

     

     

    You’re ready for some words now. The trick is to break words into smaller parts. Try some of the words below, saying each part separately. This will give you time to get your mouth ready for those bs and ps. If you think you're ready, speed up and try to blend the words. Look for more practice words in books and around your house.

    m - ine
    m-ilk
    m-ade
    m-et
    m-an
    m-ud
    m-oo
    m-all
    m-outh
    m-ight

    tea-m
    h-im
    ca-me
    the-m
    ha-m
    yu-m
    co-mb
    ho-me
    di-me

    A-m-y
    cli-mb-ing
    le-m-on
    swi-mm-ing
    ha-mm-er
    su-mm-er

    M 3

     

     

    Now it's time to move on to phrases an sentences.

    Some tips...

    1) If your child is reading, start with the written word (pages from books, advertisements, etc). Seeing each sound is a visual reminder of how it should be pronounced

    2) Pick a chunk of time during the day (10-30 minutes) that will be "great speech time" Bring your child's attention to his target sound during this time only and have him repeat himself if he can do it more accurately. Outside of this time, don't correct him. Some kids may clam up if they feel they're being judged all of the time.

    3) Increase the amount of "great speech time" as corrections become less necessary

     

    Books for F & V

     

     

    The Foot Book
    Dr. Seuss
    2-8 years

    Fuzzy Yellow Ducklings
    Matthew Van Fleet
    2-8 years

    The Very Hungry Caterpillar
    Eric Carle
    4-8 years

    I Love You, Stinky Face
    Lisa McCourt
    2-5 years

     

           

     

    F & V 1

     

     

    These sounds are produced the same way, the only difference is whether your voice is on (v) or off (f). To get ready for this sound you'll need to smile and tuck your bottom lip under your front teeth. That's right, make a bunny face. Now blow through those teeth. Keep your lips and cheeks still. Voila! An "F" Now, make the bunny face and instead of blowing, turn your voice on. Bingo! A "V"

    F & V 2 (before and after vowels)

     

     

    You’re ready for some words now. The trick is to break words into smaller parts. Try some of the words below, saying each part separately. This will give you time to get your mouth ready for those fs and vs. If you think you're ready, speed up and try to blend the words. Look for more practice words in books and around your house

    F

    f - ine
    f-eel
    f-eet
    f-ish
    f-ace
    f-ence
    f-ar
    f-irst
    f-un
    f-ood
    ph-one
    f-all
    f-ire

    i-f
    ch-ef
    lau-gh
    rou-gh
    roo-f
    o-ff
    wi-fe

    a-ff-ect
    o-ff-ice
    flu-ff-y
    be-f-ore

    V

    v-isit
    v-ase
    v-est
    v-erb
    v-an
    v-ote
    v-oice

    slee-ve
    oli-ve
    ca-ve
    sa-ve
    fi-ve
    dr-ive

    ele-v-en
    o-v-en
    e-v-er
    i-v-y
    ri-v-er

    F & V 3 (blends)

     

     

    Blends are the same as before and after vowels, but you might need to concentrate even harder. Be sure to break each blend into its sounds as you're practicing and then put them together. If you're having trouble with the second sound of the blend (i.e. the r in friend) work on the individual production of that sound before expecting to master blends.

    fl-y
    fl-ower
    fl-at
    fl-ip
    fl-ag
    fl-our
    fr-ench
    fr-og
    fr-y
    fr-uit
    fr-ee

    F & V 4

     

     

    Now it's time to move on to phrases an sentences.

    Some tips...

    1) If your child is reading, start with the written word (pages from books, advertisements, etc). Seeing each sound is a visual reminder of how it should be pronounced

    2) Pick a chunk of time during the day (10-30 minutes) that will be "great speech time" Bring your child's attention to his target sound during this time only and have him repeat himself if he can do it more accurately. Outside of this time, don't correct him. Some kids may clam up if they feel they're being judged all of the time.

    3) Increase the amount of "great speech time" as corrections become less necessary

     

     

    Voicing

     

     

    In speech, we talk about turning your voice on and off. Many sounds are made with our mouths in the same position and the only difference is whether they are "voiced" or "voiceless."

    Some examples of this are

    f/v, b/p, s/z and t/d

    To learn the feel of voices on/off, have your child hold his hand on your throat while you first let out a big breath, then while you say "aaaahhh" Sometimes we call it "turning your motor on"

    Now take turns practicing sounds with our voice off "p-p-p-p-p" and then with them on "b-b-b-b-b-b"

     

    Syllable/Sound Deletion & Cluster Reduction

     

     

    The following are some activities to assist children in producing all the sounds/syllables in a word.

    1) Ensure that he has a concept of parts in a group. First start with visuals - count how many items are in groups. Then move to sounds. Have them tell you how many claps or sounds they hear.

    2) For a child who is leaving out syllables, pick a few minutes each day to "Clap The Syllables" in words. Pick items around th house or in a book. For instance, clap each sound in "coo-kie" Say, I hear "two sounds" and do it again until your child can play along

    3)Choose words your child typically reduces or pick a few minutes a day when you'll listen for this. Say: "You said te-phone. I think we're missing a sound. Te-le-phone" while clapping each syllable. Don't worry about your child getting just the right pronunciation, as long as he adds the missing syllable.

    4) For kids with in interest in pictures/early reading. Write out the sounds on seperate pieces of paper. Put the pieces together that your child said and mention that you need to get the missing sound in there. Slide it in and say the whole word, touching each piece.

    Consonant Deletions

    Sometimes students only delete the first phoneme or sound rather than a whole syllable. Try the same techniques above, but instead of clapping syllables, clap individual sounds. For instance, your child is saying "op" instead of "top," you would clap out t-o-p. When he says op, you might say "I only heard two sound, o-p. We need one more t-o-p.

    Cluster Reduction

    This is when a child reduces a blend of sounds into just one sound. Ex. tar for star, fower for flower, net for nest. Process for home exercise is the same as for consonant deletions. Children will often have a few "favorite" clusters they reduce such as "st" or "tr" You can look for words that have these blends in your reading. Some word lists can also be found under individual sounds on this website.

     

    Books for T, D, N and TH

     

     

    T

    Ten Terrible Dinosaurs
    Paul Strickland
    4-9 years

    Ten Apples Up On Top
    Dr. Suess
    2-6 years

    The Foot Book
    Dr. Seuss
    3-8 years

    D

    The Doorbell Rang
    Pat Hutchins
    3-8 years

    Five Little Monkeys
    Eileen Christelow
    1-6 Years

    N

    The Mitten
    Jan Brett
    3-7 years

    What's That Noise?
    William Carman
    4-8 years

    TH

    Oh The Thinks You Can Think!
    Dr. Seuss
    4-8

    'Twas The Night Before Thanksgiving
    Dav Pilkey
    4-8 years

    Mouths and Teeth
    Elizabeth Milles
    4-8

     


    TH 1

     

     

    To make a "th" sound. . .

    Stick the tip of your tongue between your teeth. Be careful not to bite down or the air won't be able to come out. Now blow!
    It's that easy.

    Kids will often substitute an "f" sound for this. Practice make the sounds in the mirror. I will prompt students by saying - " I don't want a bunny face" or "I can't see your tongue!"

    Th can actually be produced voiceless (thanks, three, thigh) or voiced (this, that, thy). To create the voiced th, start in the same position, but just "turn your voice on" instead of blowing.

     

    T, D & N 1

     

     

    In order to make a "t" sound. . .

    Touch the front of the tongue to the gums just behind the top front two teeth. Take a deep breath through the nose and then release it through the mouth, releasing the tongue. Don't turn on your voice! We call this a "tongue-tapper"

    "D" is made the same way, just turn your voice on when you release the air. Practice d-d-d-d-d-d

    N starts with the tongue in the same position. Make sure your lips are apart. This time, let the air/voice come through your nose instead of your mouth!

     

    T, D, N & TH 2

     

     

    If you've got individual sounds down, try adding a long vowel sound it will sound like you are saying

    Tay
    Tee
    Tie
    Toe
    Too

    or

    Nay
    Knee
    Nigh
    No
    New

    Remember, break the two sounds up if blending them is difficult.

    ex. T - ie

    T, D, N & TH 3 (before and after vowels in words)

     

     

    You’re ready for some words now. The trick is to break words into smaller parts. Try some of the words below, saying each part separately. This will give you time to get your mouth ready for those ths. If you think you're ready, speed up and try to blend the words. Look for more practice words in books and around your house

    Voiceless "TH"

    th-ick
    th-ank
    th-umb
    th-aw
    th-ief
    th-ink

    tee-th
    Be-th
    ba-th
    pa-th
    ear-th
    bo-th
    mou-th

    too-th-ache
    au-th-or
    no-th-ing

    Voiced "TH"

    they
    th-en
    th-e
    th-ose
    th-is
    th-ese

    smoo-th

    ra-th-er
    fea-th-er
    mo-the-er
    fa-th-er
    bo-th-er

    T

    t-ea
    t-ip
    t-ake
    t-ell
    t-ap
    t-urn
    t-ummy
    t-oo
    t-ook
    t-oes
    t-alk
    t-ub
    t-ime

    fee-t
    ea-t
    si-t
    a-te
    ye-t
    c-at
    nu-t

    bu-tt-er
    ki-tt-en
    ge-tt-ing

    D

    d-eal
    d-id
    d-ay
    d-esk
    d-ime

    lea-d
    rea-d
    di-d
    ki-d
    play-ed
    sai-d
    be-d
    ba-d
    bir-d
    mu-d

    nee-d-ed
    rea-d-er
    fri-day
    mu-dd-y
    so-d-a

    N

    kn-ee
    n-eed
    n-ame
    n-ext
    n-one
    n-ew
    kn-ock
    kn-ife
    n-ow

    bea-n
    gree-n
    whe-n
    te-n
    pla-ne
    go-ne
    f-un
    soo-n

    clea-n-er
    fu-nn-y
    fi-n-ish
    rai-n-y
    pea-n-ut
    mo-n-ey

     


    T, D, N & TH 4 (blends)

     

     

    Blends are the same as before and after vowels, but you might need to concentrate even harder. Be sure to break each blend into its sounds as you're practicing and then put them together. If you're having trouble with the second sound of the blend (i.e. the r in three) work on the individual production of that sound before expecting to master blends.

    Voiceless "TH"

    th-row
    th-rough
    th-ree


    T

    tr-y
    tr-ick
    tr-ain
    tr-uck
    tw-in

    D

    dr-ink
    dr-um
    dr-iver
    dr-ess

    T, D, N & TH 5

     

     

    Now it's time to move on to phrases and sentences.

    Some tips...

    1) If your child is reading, start with the written word (pages from books, advertisements, etc). Seeing each sound is a visual reminder of how it should be pronounced

    2) Pick a chunk of time during the day (10-30 minutes) that will be "great speech time" Bring your child's attention to his target sound during this time only and have him repeat himself if he can do it more accurately. Outside of this time, don't correct him. Some kids may clam up if they feel they're being judged all of the time.

    3) Increase the amount of "great speech time" as corrections become less necessary

    Books for S, Z and S Blends

     

     

    S

    Sid and Sam
    Nola Buck
    4-8 years

    Six-Dinner Sid
    Inga Moore
    4-8 years

    Zip, Whiz, Zoom!
    Stephanie Calmenson
    2-5 years

    Town Mouse, Country Mous
    Jan Brett
    4-8 years

    Two Eyes, A Nose, and a Mouth
    Roberta Grobel Intrater
    2-5 years

    S Blends

    Snake Supper
    Alan Durant and Ant Parker
    4-9 years

    White Snow, Bright Snow
    Alvin Tresselt
    4-8 years

    Caps, Hats, Socks and Mittens
    Louise Borden
    4-8 years

    S & Z 1

     

     

    The most common way to facilitate "s" is to start with "t" Students freeze their tongue like they are about to start saying "t," build up some air, drop the tip of their tongue and "make a snake sound."

    "Z" is produced in the same way, with the voice turned on. Practice "S-Z-S-Z"

    S & Z 2

     

     

    If you've got individual sounds down, try adding a long vowel sound

    It will sound like you are saying

    Say
    See
    Sigh
    Sew
    Sue

    or

    Zay
    Zee
    Zigh
    Zoh
    Zoo

    Remember, break the two sounds up if blending them is difficult.

    ex. s – ay

     

    S & Z 3 (before and after vowels in words)

     

             

     

     

    Your ready for some words now. The trick is to break words into smaller parts. Try some of the words below, saying each part seperately. This will give you time to get your mouth ready for s and z. If you think you're ready, speed up and try to blend the words. Look for more practice words in books and around your house

    S

    s-ee
    s-it
    s-ay
    s-ell
    s-ad
    s-un
    s-oup
    s-aw
    s-ock

    p-iece
    thi-s
    fa-ce
    ye-s
    gra-ss
    cha-se
    bu-s
    ni-ce

    ra-c-er
    ni-c-er
    bi-c-ycle
    gla-ss-es

    Z

    z-ip
    z-ebra
    z-oo
    z-oom

    knee-s
    stay-s
    ha-s
    trie-s
    no-se
    paw-s

    do-z-en
    vi-s-it
    ea-s-y
    bu--y
    cra-z-y
    mu-s-ic

     


    S & Z 4 (blends)

     

     

    Blends are the same as before and after vowels, but you might need to concentrate even harder. Be sure to break each blend into its sounds as you're practicing and then put them together. If you're having trouble with the second sound of the blend (i.e. the l in slide) work on the individual production of that sound before expecting to master blends. Try some of these. . .

    S

    sp-eech
    sp-ell
    sp-oon
    st-and
    st-ar
    sk-y
    sc-oop
    sch-ool
    sm-all
    sm-art
    sn-ow
    sn-ail
    sl-ide
    sl-eep
    sw-eet
    sw-im

    a-sk
    de-sk

    ta-st-y
    roo-st-er
    whi-sp-er
    a-sk-ing

     

    S & Z 5

     

     

    Now it's time to move on to phrases an sentences.

    Some tips...

    1) If your child is reading, start with the written word (pages from books, advertisements, etc). Seeing each sound is a visual reminder of how it should be pronounced

    2) Pick a chunk of time during the day (10-30 minutes) that will be "great speech time" Bring your child's attention to his target sound during this time only and have him repeat himself if he can do it more accurately. Outside of this time, don't correct him. Some kids may clam up if they feel they're being judged all of the time.

    3) Increase the amount of "great speech time" as corrections become less necessary

    Books for Sh, Zh, Ch and J

     

     

    SH

    Six Snowy Sheep
    Judith Ross Enderle
    4-8 years

    Splish, Splash!
    Sarah Weeks
    2-4 years

    CH

    Chicka Chicka Boom Boom
    Bill Martin Jr. & John Archambault
    4-8 years

    Just Grandma and Me
    Mercer Mayer
    4-8 years

    J

    Making Plum Jam
    John Warren Stewig nd Kevin O'Malley
    4-8 years

    The Animal Hedge
    Pal Fleischman
    4-8 years

    CH & J 1

     

           

    Here are a few different ways I may approach the ch and j sounds. Your child's notebook will indicate the way that has worked best with your child.

    1) The "sh" can lead to "ch." Starting with a "sh," the tip of the tongue pushes against the hard palate and then goes back down, like a door opening and closing (sh - ch - sh - ch)

    2) "Ch" is really a blend of "t" and "sh." For a child who is reading, having them read these sounds in rapid succession can facilitate production (t sh, t sh, t sh)

    3) "J" is essentially the same as "ch" with the voiced turned on. Once "Ch" is established, practice turning the voice on and off (Ch-j-ch-j)

    4) For readers, d and y in rapid succession can help establish "j" (d y, d y, d y)

    3) Verbal directions along with a tongue depressor to help the tongue stay centered and the tip rise and fall are helpful.

    SH & ZH 1

     

     

    Here are a few different ways I may approach the sh sound. Your child's notebook will indicate the way that has worked best with your child.

    1) If the typical "r" sound is in place, we start there, then more the tongue forward, purse our lips a little and blow.

    2) Conversely, we can start with a "T", fold the tongue a little for the "s" and then pull it back, purse our lips a little and blow.

    3) "ZH" is essentially "SH" with the voiced turned on. Once "SH is established, practice turning the voice on and off. (SH - ZH - SH - ZH)

    4) Sometimes, oral directions coupled with prompting with a tonge depressor is enough to get that first good sound.

    SH, ZH, CH, J 2

     

     

    If you've got individual sounds down, try adding a long vowel sound

    It will sound like you are saying

    Shay
    Shee
    Shy
    Show
    Shoe

    or

    Jay
    Jee
    Jigh
    Joe
    Joo


    Remember, break the two sounds up if blending them is difficult.

    ex. J-ay, Ch-ew

    SH, ZH, CH, J 3

     

     

    You’re ready for some words now. The trick is to break words into smaller parts. Try some of the words below, saying each part separately. This will give you time to get your mouth ready for those tricky sounds. If you think you're ready, speed up and try to blend the words. Look for more practice words in books and around your house

    SH

    sh-ee
    sh-ip
    sh-ell
    sh-y
    sh-ower
    sh-irt

    di-sh
    wi-sh
    bru-sh
    wa-sh

    wa-sh-es
    o-c-ean
    sma-sh-ing
    fi-sh-in

    "ZH"

    vi-s-ion
    deci-s-ion
    gara-ge
    trea-s-ure
    A-s-ia

    CH

    ch-eek
    ch-an
    ch-in
    ch-ur-ch
    ch-ew
    ch-ild

    ea-ch
    pea-ch
    it-ch
    mat-ch
    su-ch
    ou-ch
    pin-ch
    lun-ch

    pit-ch-er
    ri-ch-er
    tea-ch-er
    fu-t-ure


    J

    j-eans
    j-ail
    j-et
    j-am
    g-erms
    j-unk
    j-ob
    j-uice

    ca-ge
    fud-ge

    e-j-ect
    ma-j-or
    bud-g-et
    ma-g-ic
    pa-g-es

     

    SH, ZH, CH, J 4

     

     

    Now it's time to move on to phrases an sentences.

    Some tips...

    1) If your child is reading, start with the written word (pages from books, advertisements, etc). Seeing each sound is a visual reminder of how it should be pronounced

    2) Pick a chunk of time during the day (10-30 minutes) that will be "great speech time" Bring your child's attention to his target sound during this time only and have him repeat himself if he can do it more accurately. Outside of this time, don't correct him. Some kids may clam up if they feel they're being judged all of the time.

    3) Increase the amount of "great speech time" as corrections become less necessary

    Books for R & L

     

     

    R

    Are You My Mother?
    P.D. Eastman
    4-8 years

    Little Red Riding Hood
    Candice Ransom
    3-8 years

    This Is The Rain
    Lola M. Schaefer
    5-9 years

    L

    It Looked Like Spilt Milk
    Charles G Shaw
    4-8 years

    The Very Lazy Ladybug
    Isobel Finn and Jack Tickle
    4-8 years

    Too Tall Paul, Too Small Paul
    Susan Hood
    4-8 years

     

    L 1

     

     

    How I teach students to start the l sound . . .

    To make the l sound, part your teeth slightly and put your tongue on the bumpy part behind your front teeth (the front of the alveolar ridge) Now turn your voice on! If that's too difficult, try putting the tip of your tongue on the bottom of your two top front teeth and turning your voice on. Keep practicing!

           

     

    L 2

     

     

    If you've got individual l down, try adding a long vowel sound

    It will sound like you are saying

    Lay
    Lee
    Lie
    Low
    Loo

    Remember, break the two sounds up if blending them is difficult.

    ex. l - ay

    L 3 (before and after vowels)

     

     

    You’re ready for some words now. The trick is to break words into smaller parts. Try some of the words below, saying each part separately. This will give you time to get your mouth ready for those ls. If you think you're ready, speed up and try to blend the words

    l-eaf
    l-ift
    l-eg
    l-eft
    l-augh
    l-ove
    l-oop
    l-ost
    l-ie
    l-oud

    mea-l
    f-ill
    mai-l
    tai-l
    fe-ll
    squirr-el
    coo-l
    fu-ll
    ho-le
    ow-l
    foi-l

    sa-l-ad
    fo-llow
    do-ll-ar
    ye-ll-ow
    a-l-one

     

    L 4 (blends)

     

     

    Blends are the same as before and after vowels, but you might need to concentrate even harder. Be sure to break each blend into its sounds as you're practicing and then put them together. If you're having trouble with the first sound of the blend (i.e. the s in slide) work on the individual production of that sound before expecting to master blends.

    pl-ay
    bl-ow
    bl-ue
    cl-oud
    cl-ock
    gl-ue
    sl-eep
    fl-ower
    fl-y
    air-pl-ane
    nec-kl-ace
    a-sl-eep

     

           
             

     

     

    L 5

     

     

    Now it's time to move on to phrases an sentences.

    Some tips...

    1) If your child is reading, start with the written word (pages from books, advertisements, etc). Seeing each sound is a visual reminder of how it should be pronounced

    2) Pick a chunk of time during the day (10-30 minutes) that will be "great speech time" Bring your child's attention to his target sound during this time only and have him repeat himself if he can do it more accurately. Outside of this time, don't correct him. Some kids may clam up if they feel they're being judged all of the time.

    3) Increase the amount of "great speech time" as corrections become less necessary

    R 1 (AR)

     

     

    There are a couple of different primary ways to form the sound for R. The following way is not how most adults say it, but it's useful in establishing the sound in students who are struggling with it. Your child has practiced this with me. Here's what he is learning to do.

    1) Open your mouth wide.

    2) Say ahhhhh.

    3) While still saying "ahhh" curl your tongue back until it forms a C. Close your mouth just a little (still open, but not as wide)

     


    R 2

     

     

    Practice your good "R" sound few times. Now try the following words. If adding the end sound keeps you from completing a good R, make each sound into its own word.

    ARF
    ARK
    ARM
    ART

    If you need to break it up, it will sound like ARE (breath) fff


    If you've go that down, try adding a long vowel sound to the "R"

    It will sound like you are saying

    R.A. , R.E., R.I., R.O., R. Oooh.

    Remember, break the two sounds up if blending them is difficult.

     


    R 3

     

     

    Now let's try to get the R sound by itself without it sounding like "ARE"

    Make the same movements with your mouth that you made for ARE (open wide, tongue in aaah position, curl it back) but only turn your voice on when your tongue is curled back. Practice this until you can consistently just say "R."

     


    R 4 (R initial, R blends and AR words)

     

     

    You're ready for words now!

    Here are some words you should be able to produce well with your "are" and "r" sounds. You can find many more as you read and listen. If you have trouble, remember to break each word into its sounds (harp can become h - ar - p) until you can blend them.

    Practice a few a day. Make sentences out of them. See if you can find them in your reading!

    R initial

    r-ead
    r-ip
    r-ich
    r-an
    r-aise
    r-oc
    wr-ite
    r-ide
    r-ound

    be-rr-y
    tea-r-ing
    sca-r-y
    bo-rr-ow
    ca-rr-ot

    pr-ice
    pr-oud
    br-eak
    tr-ade
    tr-y
    dr-ag
    dr-ink
    cr-ack
    cr-y
    gr-ade
    gr-ow
    fr-ee
    th-row

    A-pr-il
    ze-br-a
    a-cr-oss
    a-gr-ee
    a-fr-aid

    AR

    ar-t
    ar-m

    b-ar
    c-ar
    f-ar
    st-ar

    b-ar-n
    f-ar-m
    d-ar-k
    m-ar-ket
    y-ar-n

     

    Books for K & G

     

     

    K

    Cows Can't Fly
    David Milgrim
    4-8 years

    From Head to Toe
    Eric Carle
    4-8 years

    Oink! Moo! How Do You Do?
    Grace MacCarone
    2-5 years


    G

    Goodnight, Gorilla
    Peggy Rathmann
    2-5 years

    Where Does The Garbage Go?
    Paul Showers
    4-8 years

    Big Pig on a Dig
    Jenny Tyler
    1-4 years

     

    K & G 1

     

     

    It can be difficult to get a child to produce a k or g. Often, they will substitute a t or d for this sound. These are some examples of how I may facilitate that sound with your child. I will note in his spiral if he is to the point where he can practice the sound and what "tricks" will help him.

    1) Growling - in trying to get a child to see what if feels like to have the back of his tongue touch the velum (upper back of roof of the mouth) I will have him growl like a bear or tiger. Often the child will make that "g" sound naturally and we'll work from there

    2) Sometimes I will use a tongue depressor to hold the front of the tongue down and have the child attempt the sound. The back of the tongue may go up to the appropriate place.

    3) Laying down - Laying on their backs helps some children more naturally pull the tongue back to an appropriate position.

    Once your child has established either the g or k, we facilitate the other by having them turn their voice on (for g) or off (for k).

     


    K & G 2 (minimal pairs)

     

     

    For the child that substitutes t for k and d for g. . .


    The following words differ only in whether they use the front sounds t and d or the back sound k and g. You can practice with this list in a few ways

    1) read them out loud for your child, stressing the differences

    2) Draw pictures of each object (I may send some home with students working on this) and have your child point to which one you said.

    3) Have your child repeat the words, making sure he produces a difference.

    3) Have your child say the words and you point to or draw the picture you think he labeled.

    tap/cap
    tan/can
    take/cake
    bite/bike
    tape/cape
    pat/pack
    tall/call
    sit/sick
    tub/cub
    sat/sack
    tea/key
    bat/back

    down/gown
    date/gate
    bed/beg
    deer/gear
    dough/go
    mud/mug
    die (as in game one of a pair of dice)/guy
    bud/bug
    Ed/egg

     

    K & G 3

     

     

    You’re ready for some words now. The trick is to break words into smaller parts. Try some of the words below, saying each part separately. This will give you time to get your mouth ready for those ks and gs. If you think you're ready, speed up and try to blend the words.

    K

    k-eep
    k-iss
    c-an
    c-up
    c-one
    c-ow
    k-ite
    c-at

    bla-ck
    l-ick
    sna-ke
    ne-ck
    pa-ck
    lu-ck
    ba-ck
    too-k
    jo-ke
    tal-k
    lo-ck
    bi-ke

    be-c-ause
    ma-k-ing
    se-c-ond
    lu-ck-y
    chi-ck-en
    ja-ck-et

    G

    g-oose
    g-ive
    g-ame
    g-et
    g-as
    g-ood
    g-olf
    g-o

    bi-g
    p-ig
    e-gg
    ba-g
    hu-g
    fro-g

    a-g-ain
    Au-g-ust
    be-g-in
    su-g-ar
    be-g-an

     

    K & G 4 (blends)

     

     

    Blends are the same as before and after vowels, but you might need to concentrate even harder. Be sure to break each blend into its sounds as you're practicing and then put them together. If you're having trouble with the second sound of the blend (i.e. the r in green) work on the individual production of that sound before expecting to master blends.

    K

    cr-ack
    cr-awl
    cr-eam
    cr-y
    cl-oud
    cl-ean

    ne-ckl-ace
    qui-ckl-y


    G

    gr-ab
    gr-een
    gr-ey
    gr-ade
    gr-ow
    gr-in
    gl-ance
    gl-ow
    gl-ad

    a-gr-ee
    photo-gr-aph
    i-gl-oo
    u-gl-y

    K & G 5

     

     

    Now it's time to move on to phrases an sentences.

    Some tips...

    1) If your child is reading, start with the written word (pages from books, advertisements, etc). Seeing each sound is a visual reminder of how it should be pronounced

    2) Pick a chunk of time during the day (10-30 minutes) that will be "great speech time" Bring your child's attention to his target sound during this time only and have him repeat himself if he can do it more accurately. Outside of this time, don't correct him. Some kids may clam up if they feel they're being judged all of the time.

    3) Increase the amount of "great speech time" as corrections become less necessary